SHARJAH, United Arab Emirates (CMC): Great former Pakistan speedster Waqar Younis believes the dramatic sacking of West Indies head coach Phil Simmons, on the eve of the ongoing tour, has had a negative impact on the Caribbean side’s performance. West Indies looked a shadow of themselves in the Twenty20 International series and were stunned 3-0 by Pakistan, and also suffered a heavy 111-run defeat in the opening one-day international (ODI) of the three-match series here last Friday. They also lost heavily, by 59 runs, in the second ODI yesterday. Waqar, who snared 373 wickets in 87 Tests, said the uncharacteristically poor showing, especially in the T20s, was a sign that Simmons’ axing and that of inspirational captain Darren Sammy had left the side in disarray. “To be honest, I feel there are plenty of loopholes. They don’t really look like a unit, having sacked their coach before coming on this tour,” said the 44-year-old. “They are having issues with new captain (Carlos Brathwaite) having to step in, as they also sacked their captain Darren Sammy. These things are never good and easy when you are going to play in someone else’s backyard. CLEARLY AFFECTED “All these (factors) have really affected them and you could clearly see it during the T20 series, their body language is not there.” West Indies are the reigning T20 World champions after their triumph in India last April, but failed to live up to their billing, with three successive wretched performances. In the opening T20 in Dubai, they were dismissed for 115 to lose by nine wickets and in the second game the following day, lost by 16 runs after failing to chase down 161 at the same venue. The final game in Abu Dhabi was even more shocking for West Indies as they could only muster a paltry 103 for five from their 20 overs, allowing Pakistan to ease to an easy eight-wicket win. Waqar, who has served as a Pakistan head coach in the past but is now a television analyst for the series, said West Indies faced the humiliation of losing every game on tour – including the three Tests later this month – if they did not quickly arrest the current slide. “They have to really pull their strings very quickly before it gets too late. At the moment, after what I have seen in this series, it looks like it might be 9-0, to be very honest,” Waqar contended. “They have to really play good cricket. Somebody has to inspire this West Indies team to go out and play positive. At the moment, they look like they are all over the place.”
Danny Welbeck was also on target as England extended their unbeaten run to 10 games, stretching back nearly a year.“What pleased me most is that Marcus Rashford enjoyed his football tonight. He played with a real swagger,” said Southgate.Rashford made the most of the absence of England captain Harry Kane as he started up front alongside Jamie Vardy, and showed what he is capable of with a fiercely struck shot from 25 yards that dipped perfectly into the top corner.“You work on them (goals) in training every day and when one comes up in a game it’s a reward,” Rashford told ITV.Rashford endured a difficult end to the season at United, scoring just four times in 2018 at club level, and suffering some stinging criticism from Jose Mourinho.However, Southgate insisted the 20-year-old needs to express himself and feel the freedom to make mistakes.“He had a difficult end to the season having to play on his own as a number nine at times. He is still filling out — we sometimes forget how old he is,” added Southgate.“For me, at the end of the season, he cares so much you can see he was trying too hard.“I said to all the team before the game, I expect to see mistakes tonight and, if I don’t, there might be a problem because we wouldn’t be being as attack-minded as we want to be.“They are going to make errors, but they might also show the glimpses like Marcus’s goal. The goal was world-class.”– Gulf in class –Southgate made 10 changes from the side that beat Nigeria 2-1 on Saturday with 19-year-old Trent Alexander-Arnold of Liverpool handed his international debut at right-back.Rashford caught the eye from the off with a sublime piece of skill down the left that forced a corner from which his United team-mate Phil Jones saw a looping header turned onto the bar by Keylor Navas.Real Madrid goalkeeper Navas was completely caught out moments later, though, as Rashford unleashed a powerful drive from 25 yards for his third international goal.Navas was Costa Rica’s hero of an incredible run to the World Cup quarter-finals four years ago in Brazil, helping to knock England out of the group stages on the way.However, there was a gulf in class even between Southgate’s largely second string line-up and the Central Americans as England dominated.Navas kept his side in the game by denying Vardy from point-blank range as he latched onto Leicester team-mate Harry Maguire’s knockdown.Costa Rica face tournament favourites Brazil as well as Serbia and Switzerland in Group E, and will need to show far more ambition once they get to Russia if they are to replicate their heroics of four years ago.Southgate held off making any changes until the hour mark and left Kane in reserve for the full 90 minutes as his side continued to control the game after the break.England’s rhythm was then stunted by five quickfire substitutions, including a debut for Burnley’s Nick Pope in goal.However, Welbeck also justified his inclusion in Southgate’s squad by coming off the bench to seal the win 14 minutes from time as he headed home Dele Alli’s cross.0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today) 0Shares0000Marcus Rashford believes England can go all the way at the World Cup in Russia and hopes to play a major part © AFP / Paul ELLISLEEDS, United Kingdom, Jun 8 – England manager Gareth Southgate admitted Marcus Rashford had given him a difficult decision to make ahead of the World Cup with a stunning strike in a 2-0 friendly victory over Costa Rica on Thursday.In England’s last match before their tournament opener against Tunisia in 11 days time, Manchester United’s Rashford was the star of a much-changed side in Leeds.
1 Manchester United defender Rafael has been ruled out for the rest of the season with a rib injury, manager Louis van Gaal has confirmed.The Brazilian right-back was forced off during an Under-21 game against Leicester on Monday following an aerial collision with Anthony Knockaert.And Van Gaal told MUTV on Friday that the player will miss the final five games of the campaign.Van Gaal said of the setback: “It’s unbelievable.“He has broken his ribs so he shall not play any more this season for Manchester United. It’s very unfortunate.”In truth, the news about Rafael is not such a big blow for Van Gaal.The Brazilian has not started a Premier League game for the club since October.Of more concern to the United boss is the long list of other players who are out through injury.Phil Jones [ankle], Michael Carrick [calf] and Marcos Rojo [adductor] all missed last weekend’s defeat to Chelsea and are not fit to feature at Everton on Sunday.The only man who could return is midfielder Daley Blind, who missed the 1-0 loss at Stamford Bridge due to an ankle problem.“Only Blind maybe can reach the game against Everton but Jones, Carrick and Rojo cannot play,” the Dutchman added.Adnan Januzaj appears to be available despite coming off in the same under-21 match as Rafael with an ankle injury.“[His injury] is not so heavy,” Van Gaal said.Another piece of good news for Van Gaal is that centre-back Jonny Evans is available, having served his six-match ban for spitting at Newcastle striker Papiss Cisse. Manchester United defender Rafael
The brilliant Finesse Gymnastics Display teamDonegal’s Finesse Gymnastics Display team are celebrating this evening after winning the overall award at the Scottish Gymnastics Championship in Glasgow.The event is run by Sapphire Gymnastics Club annually & this is Finesse’s first time to perform at the event.They competed against 26 teams from all over the British Isles with Finesse being the only team from Ireland. Finesse’s Charleston themed routine showcased the high quality of their flawless performance and execution of skills. On the announcement as Finesse being Overall Senior Team Winners 2014, the MC at the event summed up the performance. “You guys rocked it, you were awesome!”This fantastic result is down to a great group of 16 dedicated gymnasts, proud club managers Tony King & his wife Faye, along with their coach Meganne Herron, choreographer Linda Bennett and supportive parents.The team will be returning home tomorrow evening proudly bearing a trophy, medals & prize money for their club.Team members: Fiona Lafferty, Rachel Canning, Ellie King, Amber Beecroft, Ciara Beecroft, Aoife O Connor, Molly Gallagher, Cara Nulty, Orla Lonergan, Ailbhe Gallagher, Adele King, Molly Nulty, Tori O Connor, Orla Mc Carron, Aisling Nulty, Abi Nulty. DONEGAL GYMNASTIC TEAM SCOOP SCOTTISH GYMNASTICS CHAMPIONSHIP TITLE was last modified: October 4th, 2014 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:donegalFinesse Gymnastic Display TeamScottish title
If we win Man City with Gomez RB and Lovren in defence, Guardiola needs to retire.— CF (@FirminoBrand) October 7, 2018 Dejan Lovren is back in the Liverpool team To break up the best CB pairing in the EPL is ridiculous. If Trent is not fit enough or in need of a rest then play Fabinho at RB. Such a big gamble by Klopp to bring Lovren back in imo— Stanley Harker (@Stanley1066) October 7, 2018 Gomez at RB, Lovren CB, Henderson in midfield. I feel ill.— Larry Fisherman (@LFCTikiTaka) October 7, 2018 #LIVMCI team news time! 📋👇Today’s #LFC line-up👇https://t.co/abbqM1PItF— Liverpool FC (@LFC) October 7, 2018 Can’t believe Henderson starts ahead of Keita again. how is Sturridge still on the bench? Liverpool’s best striker on form. And worse, Lovren is back! #bbcfootball— Khan Karn (@khankarn) October 7, 2018 Jurgen Klopp’s team selection for Liverpool’s clash with Manchester City took many by surprise.The Reds boss, whose side are winless in three, opted to hand Dejan Lovren his first start of the season and also recalled Jordan Henderson to the starting XI for Sunday’s huge Premier League showdown at Anfield. 1 Confirmed LFC XI vs. Man City – there’s one big surprise as Gomez starts at right back:Alisson, Gomez, Lovren, Van Dijk, Robertson, Henderson, Wijnaldum, Milner, Mane, Salah, Firmino.— This Is Anfield (@thisisanfield) October 7, 2018 Trent Alexander-Arnold and Naby Keita were the players to make way, with both of them dropping to the bench.Lovren’s return to the team means Joe Gomez – one of Liverpool‘s best performers this season – moves from centre-back to full-back.It is a bold call by Klopp, given the Croatian defender is not the most popular of players at Anfield given his penchant for mistakes since his arrival on Merseyside.The decision to start Henderson is also controversial as the club captain has been heavily criticised in recent weeks for his performances.Check out some of the reaction on Twitter to Klopp’s starting XI against the champions… Lovren returns, Henderson starts and Gomez at RB pic.twitter.com/WQMczyF8zW— MR (@MandarR17) October 7, 2018 So Trent is dropped for a few bad games but we’re still here rocking out with Henderson and Lovren after a few bad years 🤨 pic.twitter.com/xXIYAsSdQv— Paddy (@AnfieldPyro) October 7, 2018 Milner AND Henderson with Lovren at CB with Gomez right back !?!? I’m fuming , Klopp is a mad man #LFC— Mr PIA 💥🔑 (@MrPIAProgress) October 7, 2018 Klopp obviously don’t want to win the league then, putting lovren in for 1st prem start of season against City is terrible decision— Matthew gill (@statto190379) October 7, 2018 Klopp has lost his mind with that starting 11 😸😂— Quinhentos por dia (@joEdepth) October 7, 2018
Highly anticipated work has commenced on the Glen Road in Anagaire following years of campaign to get the main road repaired. In August, a concerned Anagaire resident Mary Ferry spoke to Donegal Daily following the deterioration of the road in the west Donegal parish.The road, which is in a desperate state of disrepair, has a severe subsidence that was causing homeowners concern that a major accident could take place in the area. Speaking last month, Mrs Ferry, who lives within walking distance to the road, said it is a ‘disaster waiting to happen’.She said: “The sides of the road are giving away and we have been on to the council about this road for the last couple of years and not enough has been done.“With winter coming now, the road is extremely dangerous. You wouldn’t be fit to walk on the road because it is far too narrow in its current state.Around €15,000 was secured for the project earlier this year, with Donegal County Council starting the project late last week. Speaking to Donegal Daily today (Mon), west Donegal Councillor Micheal Cholm MacGiolla Easbuig said he was delighted to finally see work get underway, but insisted more funding would be required to make the road as safe as possible.He said: I’m glad I was able to work with others to secure €15,000 to carryout much-needed work on the Glen Road, Anagaire.“I have been working with my local community for a while highlighting the health and safety concerns that we have in relation to this stretch of road.“As much as it’s welcomed news to see work starting ar blaetla na Gleana (on the Glen Road), there is a major investment needed to make this road safer for pedestrians, cyclists and drivers.“Myself and Mary Ferry will be going around house to house to hear what our community feels should be the next action to secure more funding,” he added. “Let’s all work together to make this road safe for everyone.”Roadworks begin on ‘dangerous’ road in west Donegal was last modified: September 23rd, 2019 by Shaun KeenanShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)
Arcata >> Two-hundred seventy-nine youths grades K-8 competed at the Mad River Dunes Youth Run at Mad River Beach County Park in Arcata on Tuesday.The closest race of the day came in the boys K-2nd grade half-mile race, where Jacoby Creek second-grader Calahan Figas ran a time of 3:52, edging Fieldbrook’s John Corigliano by a mere two seconds.Caroline Taylor won the girls K-2 race with a time of 4:24. Trinidad’s Vivian Adams (4:33) and Quincey Kelly (5:02) finished second and third, …
29 August 2005Four South African climbers have overcome treacherous conditions to reach the top of the sheer Trango Tower rock formation in Pakistan.Peter Lazarus (42), Marianne Pretorius (28), James Pitman (36) and Andreas Kiefer (33) summitted the tower on Sunday 21 August. Pretorius is the third woman in the world to reach the top of Trango.The Trango Tower lies on the Boltoro Glacier in the Karakoram mountain range of Pakistan. At an altitude of 6 250 metres and 1 200 metres high, the “Nameless Tower” first attracted the attention of legendary British hard man Joe Brown during an expedition to central Karakoram in 1956.It took 20 years before Brown, Martin Boysen, Mo Anthoine and Malcolm Howells successfully climbed the needle-like feature by its southwest face.Trango now has eight different routes to the summit. The South African team climbed the Slovenian route.Snowstorms almost forced them to abandon the climb just metres from the top on the day of the summit, according to the Sunday Times. In their final hurdle, they had to ice-climb an overhanging snow mushroom which was collapsing under their efforts.“We spent about six hours on the ridge in snowstorms and were all hanging off one belay stance,” Pretorius told the Sunday Times.The summit day dawned overcast after heavy snow the previous day, which had interrupted the team’s ascent. It was snowing again by the time Lazarus, the team leader, and Pretorius had ascended 600 metres of ropes.From the top of the ropes, Lazarus led the way up an iced crack along a narrow ridge to within about 15 metres of the summit. Pretorius, Kiefer and Pitman joined him there in driving snow at lunchtime. Lazarus then edged forward along a rock band to below the mushroom.About 8m short of the summit, Kiefer took over the lead.“Crossing the rock band, Andreas [Kiefer] commented wryly: ‘This is the scariest climbing I’ve ever done,’” Pitman says on the Trango team’s website.“Which, in Andreas’s case, means it’s scary!“Hacking at the ice mushroom, it became clear to Andreas that it consisted of semi-consolidated snow – impossible to find purchase on and impossible to punch through,” Pitman says.‘At the top, shouting obscenities’Unwilling to give up so close to the summit, the team considered their alternatives. It was about 4pm Pakistan time.“The snow eased off a little, the sun trying to push its way through,” says Pitman. “To turn back, only metres short, or give it a final shot, that was the question.”Pitman – “the only one without a down jacket” – was willing to take a chance on a route that Kiefer had seen from the mushroom. He set out across horizontal cracks in the rock below the mushroom, towards a vertical crack on the northwest face.“Half an hour later, having delicately traversed out left, past the first vertical crack (it proved too flaring), to a second crack on the west face, I was at the top, shouting obscenities from the kitchen-table-sized summit,” says Pitman.Pitman then dropped a rope down for Pretorius, Lazarus and Kiefer to climb to the top.“It was the smallest summit I have ever been on,” Pretorius told the Sunday Times. “It was an awesome point.”Says Pitman: “To the north the head of the Dunge Glacier was a chaotic jumble of ice seracs, K2 and Broad Peak were in thin cloud to the east, Great Trango looked uncharacteristically humble to the south, and the beautiful Uli Biaho, Shipton Spire and peerless Cat’s Ears suddenly seemed eminently more climbable to the west.”Their celebration was brief. With head torches they went down the ropes in the dark for about five hours, before reaching a camp on the shoulder.Portaledges set up on the shoulder. (Photo copyright Team Trango)On Monday, after a few hours’ sleep, the team began to clean the mountain of debris.“For 14 hours we stripped her of her bondage – our portaledges, gear and ropes, but equally, the gas bottles, pollution and especially hundreds of metres of tattered lines carelessly left by past parties,” says Pitman.Lazarus and Pitman worked past the last light, staggering into base camp late on Tuesday night.“Our guide Amjad had arranged a great welcome party with flags, necklaces, hot food, cake, whisky and song,” Pitman relates. “For two emotional hours we celebrated like a close family before literally crashing into our tents, twisted and broken, but somehow deeply complete.”For team leader Lazarus it was about more than just the mountain: “Although getting to the top of Nameless Tower was the ostensible objective of this expedition, for me its real objective was to experience these mountains and return home safely. Summitting was the cherry on the top, but what a cherry it turned out to be!”“For two emotional hours we celebrated like a close family before literally crashing into our tents, twisted and broken, but somehow deeply complete.” (Photo copyright Team Trango)The Trango teamTeam leader Peter “Lobster” Lazarus has been climbing for over 22 years, starting out as a student at Wits University. While still at Wits he established Skyriders, the first rope-access company in South Africa – and now the largest such company in the country.Lazarus discovered and opened the first routes at the world-renowned Restaurant (at the End of the Universe) Crag at Waterval Boven in Mpumalange, the Chosspile near Hartebeespoort Dam in North West, and the New Slatesman in Broederstroom.He has climbed extensively in South Africa, other parts of Africa, the US, Canada, France, the UK, Spain and Thailand. He is an advocate specialising in environmental and mining law.Marianne Pretorius is South Africa’s most experienced and well-known female big wall climber. In early 2004 she became the first woman to scale the imposing east face of the Central Torres del Paine in the Chilean Patagonia. In February 2005 she successfully ascended Cerro Torre, also in Patagonia, via the famous Compressor route.A photographer by trade, Pretorius has climbed in the US, Wales, France and Spain. In 2004 she was the lead climber in the first, and to date only, all-female ascent of the north wall of Blouberg in Limpopo.After Trango she plans to climb the towering and as yet unexplored rock faces of the Queen Maud Land area of Antarctica.James Pitman is a relative newcomer to rock-climbing, having only started in 2001. He is an avid sportsman – cycling, canoeing, playing ball-sports and participating in anything else that crosses his path. Pitman is a corporate lawyer in a Johannesburg law firm and farms Nguni cows in the KwaZulu-Natal midlands.Pitman has climbed the Blouberg massif, the Klein Winterhoek (“Oceans of Fear”) in the Magaliesberg and at most of SA’s popular sites. In May 2005 he accompanied Peter Lazarus to Yosemite in the US for training on the granite wall of El Capitan.With his mother a prominent member of the Mountain Club of South Africa, Andreas Kiefer became member at the age of 12.Kiefer has climbed most of the major peaks in the Drakensberg, as well as in the Magaliesberg, Blouberg and elsewhere in the country. A recent effort was climbing the Devil’s Tooth in the Drakensburg – from Johannesburg and back in just under 22 hours.He has climbed the Fitzroy region of Patagonia, Cerro Torre glacier, Paine areas and Tierra del Fuego. In 1996 Kiefer was in the Karakoram on a technical trekking trip from Hushe over the Gondongoro La to Concordia, K2 base camp and back down the Baltoro Glacier, past Trango Tower and on to Askole.Kiefer’s previous international excursion was to Peru in 2003, where he climbed Urus, Ishinca and Alpamayo.SouthAfrica.info reporter
Related Posts Tags:#BlackBerry#mobile#news#Sponsors#web Research in Motion (RIM), maker of BlackBerry smartphones, is in a battle with mobile operators over its plans to use NFC in its forthcoming devices. NFC, short for “near field communication,” is a technology that will enable mobile payments and mobile wallet-type applications, allowing customers to wave or tap their phones at point-of-sale to pay for purchases. According to a report from The Wall St. Journal today, the disagreement between RIM and the carriers has to do with where the credentials for these mobile payments will be stored – on a SIM card inserted into the phone, or, as RIM would have it, in a secure area within the BlackBerry device itself.Meanwhile, in other NFC-related news, it appears that the iPhone 5 may have NFC capabilities after all, despite earlier reports saying plans for this had been scrapped.For more on NFC, tune into our ongoing series, NFC in 2011. You can view earlier articles on that technology by clicking on the tag NFC 2011.RIM vs. Carriers: Fighting for Control of the Mobile Wallet There are several ways NFC can be implemented on a smartphone to enable mobile payments. It can be fully integrated into the handset, such as is the case with Google’s latest flagship phone, the Nexus S. It can exist on a removable microSD card which fits into slots on the phone, or can be inserted into accessories like cases or sleeves, such as is the case with Visa’s iPhone case for its In2Pay solution. Or it can be integrated into a SIM card – the card that identifies a mobile subscriber on an operator’s cellular network.The method of implementation is what’s causing the rift between the carriers and RIM, according to the report from the WSJ today. Although the carriers expected to be cut out of the deal when Apple launched its NFC-enabled iPhone, RIM has traditionally been more carrier-friendly. For example, RIM did not preload its mobile app store on some of its devices so carriers could preload their own stores instead, reports WSJ.The carriers say that putting NFC onto the SIM card is good for consumers because it doesn’t tie the users to one device – they can move their SIM card from phone to phone as they see fit. But obviously, having the technology present on the carrier-provided SIM would be good for the operators too, as it would allow them to be actively involved in the mobile payments system.However, both RIM, and supposedly Apple, have plans to integrate the NFC technology into the phone itself, cutting the operators out of the deal. Now, the WSJ reports that the carriers are putting pressure on RIM, which is reaching out to banks on its own, to reconsider the way its choosing to implement NFC.iPhone 5 to have NFC (Rumor) In a related story, a new rumor is circulating today that contradicts an earlier report regarding NFC in the next iPhone release, the iPhone 5. On Monday, U.K.’s The Independent newspaper cited sources at several of the largest mobile operators in the U.K. as saying that Apple does not plan to implement NFC technology in the iPhone 5. Reportedly, Apple is concerned about the lack of an industry standard for the technology.To us, that first report seemed misleading, not only because NFC has been an approved standard since 2003, but because the way the carriers are joining forces now to prepare their own NFC initiatives seems to imply some sort of immediate threat on the horizon. At last month’s Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, 16 operators teamed up to announce their intentions to launch commercial NFC services. And in the U.S., three of the four top carriers have formed Isis, a mobile payments venture that will provide NFC-enabled credit, debit and prepaid accounts to users.Today’s report from Forbes, while not as well-sourced at The Independent’s, simply feels more accurate. The source for the report is an Apple employee, who’s a friend of some unnamed entrepreneur, which puts this decidedly in “rumor” territory. Reportedly, Apple is working on a top-secret NFC project, the article claims.Elsewhere, Cult of Mac claims to have more details. It says that Apple will use NFC in a system that will allow users to log into another computer using an NFC-equipped iPhone. The iPhone will pair with the host machine and load files and settings over the Internet.While that would certainly be a neat trick, we find it hard to believe that’s the extent of Apple’s NFC plans. As everything moves to the cloud, the idea that iPhones have to physically pair with a computer in order to properly function becomes more and more passé, no matter how many new bells and whistles you introduce to make that process easier.At the end of the day, the question is not whether Apple is working on an NFC-enabled iPhone, the question is how much of the NFC functionality, if any, will be available in iPhone 5 as opposed to the iPhone 6 and later devices. But NFC is coming to the iPhone, that much you can count on. sarah perez What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technology
Last week we examined the amount of energy it takes to transport and treat water — and how we can conserve energy by using less water. This week, we’ll look at the inverse of that: how much water it takes to produce energy and how our energy conservation efforts reduce water use.The water intensity of energyWhenever water shortages loom anywhere, we hear about how much “embodied water” there is in various products. According to the Water Footprint Network, producing a slice of bread requires 11 gallons of water and producing a pound of beef takes 1,800 gallons. The same sort of analysis can be done with our energy sources. As with foods, different types of energy have different water intensities.Electricity:Electricity generation is highly variable in its water-intensity. Roughly 89% of U.S. electricity is produced in “thermoelectric” power plants. These are plants that use heat from burning coal or natural gas or from controlled nuclear fission to generate steam, which then spins turbines. Water is used to create the steam, and then more water is used to cool that steam, condensing it back into water. Most thermoelectric power plants built before 1970 have “open-loop” or once-through cooling systems that result in relatively little evaporation — though significantly warmer water is returned to the river or other source from which it was taken (which has its own environmental costs).Most newer plants use “closed-loop” recirculation cooling; far less water is required, but most of that evaporates (consumptive use). Averaged nationwide, 0.47 gallons of water is consumed (evaporated) for each kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity produced by thermoelectric plants, according to a 2003 paper by researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Consumptive Water Use for U.S. Power Production.Most of our electricity not produced by thermoelectric power plants is generated by hydroelectric plants. This accounts for about 9% of the U.S. total. Hydroelectric plants don’t heat water to create steam, so water isn’t needed for cooling, but they use a lot of water nonetheless. Most hydropower is generated by damming rivers to create reservoirs. These reservoirs have significantly larger surface areas than the free-flowing rivers prior to damming, and evaporation from these reservoirs can be significant. Hydrologists produce “free water surface evaporation” maps to model this evaporation, which varies greatly by climate.For the NREL study mentioned above, researchers calculated evaporation from the 120 largest power-generation reservoirs in the U.S. (representing 65% of total hydropower generation) and used that data to extrapolate evaporation from all of the nation’s 2,300 power-generation reservoirs: 9.05 billion gallons per day. Here’s how the water consumption from hydroelectric power generation in a few states compares: 18 gallons/kWh in Colorado, 21 gal/kWh in California, 65 gal/kWh in Arizona, and 137 gal/kWh in Oklahoma. Nationally, the average is 18 gal/kWh.By weighting thermoelectric and hydroelectric power generation sources, the NREL report calculated an average water-intensity of electricity in the U.S. to be 2.0 gal/kWh. So if you use 500 kWh per month, that’s requiring, on average, 1,000 gallons of water.Oil and gas:Electricity isn’t the only form of energy that requires a lot of water to produce. According to a 2006 U.S. Department of Energy report to Congress, Energy Demands on Water Resources, conventional onshore oil extraction consumes relatively little water: 0.12 to 0.31 gallons of water per gallon of oil (0.8 – 2.2 gal/million Btu). But “enhanced” oil recovery practices, which are becoming increasingly common, are much more water-intensive. These practices range from 1.9 gal water/gal oil (14 gal/million Btu) to over 300 gal water/gal oil (2,500 gal/million Btu). Extracting oil from tar sands in Alberta takes 20-50 gallons/million Btu. Another 1.0 to 2.5 gallons of water are required to process and transport each gallon of oil (7-18 gal/million Btu).With natural gas, conventional onshore extraction requires negligible water use, but processing and transport averages 3 gal water/million Btu. New “hydraulic fracturing” techniques (sometimes referred to as “frac’ing”), as are being used to recover natural gas from the Marcellus Shale formation, use a great deal of water (and contaminate that water in the process).Renewables:On the renewable energy front, some biofuels, especially ethanol produced from corn, are very water-intensive. A 2008 paper in the journal Environmental Science & Technology reported that a light-duty vehicle driven on an E85 fuel (85% ethanol) “consumes” a remarkable 28 gallons of water per mile! Utility-scale solar-thermal power plants that focus sunlight to super-heat an oil heat-transfer fluid, which in turn generates steam, require a lot of water, and that’s an issue in the desert environment where these are being built. (Some other solar-thermal technologies rely on Stirling engine technology, instead of steam turbines, so use almost no water.)Bottom line: Save Energy to Conserve Water!The bottom-line conclusion from all this — you saw this coming! — is that by conserving energy we save a lot of water. Replacing incandescent light bulbs with CFLs, upgrading to Energy Star appliances, insulating your house — virtually any energy improvement you make — will also save water. Some experts say this is really important; in the coming decades fresh water could become a more limited resource than energy.In addition to this Energy Solutions blog, Alex writes the weekly blog on BuildingGreen.com: Alex’s Cool Product of the Week, which profiles an interesting new green building product each week. You can sign up to receive notices of these blogs by e-mail — enter your e-mail address in the upper right corner of any BuildingGreen blog page.Alex is founder of BuildingGreen, LLC and executive editor of Environmental Building News. To keep up with his latest articles and musings, you can sign up for his Twitter feed.